Batteries produce electrons inside their “tanks” to provide energy and power to many types of electrical devices. Because the flow of electrons through a device is essential to its operation, the battery must produce an infinite amount of electrons to supply the device with energy. There are various chemicals inside the tank of the battery itself. These chemicals react with each other and through a process known as an electrochemical reaction, they release electrons. A battery consists of one or more cells that have two electrodes (cathode and anode) immersed in the electrolyte.
Batteries are divided into:
- batteries whose energy is irreversibly depleted in one use — primary batteries (disposable batteries),
- batteries whose energy, as it is used up, can be recovered by charging — secondary batteries (replacement batteries). The electrochemical process is reversible, can be charged and discharged. Replacement batteries are used with more demanding devices that need more power, such as laptops, digital cameras, cameras, phones…
Types of replacement batteries:
Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery
The first NiCd battery was built in 1899. The fabrication material was expensive at the time, limiting their commercial use. 1947. . closed-circuit NiCd battery research and refinement begin. The technical solutions of the time lead to the modern closed NiCd battery that we still use today.
This is the only type of battery that works best in harsh conditions.
Regular deep discharges are extremely important, otherwise, large crystals will cover the surface of the plates and NiCd will lose capacity. Charged NiCd loses about 10% of stored energy (due to self-discharge) in the first 24 hours, and further about 10% per month.
Application: radio stations, medical instruments, work tools.
- Easy to charge
- A large number of charge-discharge cycles
- NiCd accepts charging at low temperatures
- Longer storage time
- Easy to store and transport
- Relatively low capacity
- Memory effect (batteries have a “memory capacity” of used capacity, if you use a battery more than once in a row to only half its capacity, it will have less capacity after a couple of charges).
- Great self-discharge (self-discharge depends on the chemistry of the system itself, it can be caused by some impurities during the production which, as a side reaction, can consume the charge and also depends on the temperature because the higher the temperature at which the battery is stored, the higher the self-discharge).
Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Batteries
Research into NiMH batteries began in the 1970s. The alloy hydride was developed in the 1980s and was sufficiently stable for use in a closed-cell. Since the 1980s, NiMH has been constantly refined…The modern NiMH battery has 40% more capacity than NiCd.
- 50% more capacity than NiCd
- Less pronounced self-discharge and memory effect
- Easy storage and transport
- Shorter life span
- A more complex charging method
Read more Nimh vs lipo battery on here.
SLA batteries — dry lead batteries
Invented by the French physicist Gaston Plante in 1859, the lead battery was the first rechargeable battery in commercial use. In the mid-1970s, researchers developed a maintenance-free lead-acid battery that could operate in any position.
Of all modern batteries, the SLA has the lowest capacity per kilogram and volume. SLA has no memory effect and can be recharged indefinitely with maintenance voltage. Self-discharge is about 40% per year.
- Cheap fabrication
- Low self-discharge
- It must not be stored empty
- Low capacity concerning weight and volume
- A relatively small number of cycles
Research on lithium batteries began in 1912. — has only been commercially available since 1970. as a non-rechargeable battery.
A further development provides a rechargeable battery that uses lithium anode (negative pole), provides high operating voltage and excellent capacity that outperforms all other batteries. The capacity of a Li-ion battery is twice that of NiCd. The voltage discharge curve is excellent. It has no memory effect and battery self-discharge is negligible.
- High capacity
- Low self-discharge
- Requires electronics to control charge and discharge
- Expensive to produce
For example, the Dyson v10 battery type almost are lithium batteries, low price with high capacity, but the tendency is lipo battery, with can create various shapes and high c-rate. You can check their type before buying.
Lithium-ion polymer battery
The Li-polymer battery is different from the rest in its electrolyte. The original design originated in the 1970s, using a dry polymerized electrolyte. The polymerized electrolyte replaces the electrolyte-impregnated separator as in Li-ion.
- It can be extremely thin
- Ability to create various shapes
- Less capacity and number of cycles compared to Li-ion batteries
Advantages of replacement batteries:
- high and stable voltage during discharge,
- high specific energy and high energy density,
- high output power per unit mass and volume,
- the wide temperature range of use,
- high utilization of active materials,
- a long cyclical life with deep discharge,
- the ability to accept fast charging,
- low self-discharge,
- the ability to withstand overfilling and emptying,
- reliability and safety (batteries must not leak, to spread dangerous substances or cause explosions),
- mechanical and chemical stability,
- made from readily available, inexpensive, non-toxic and environmentally friendly materials,
- they are suitable for recycling.
Replacement batteries compared to the original ones
In the long run, the least cost-effective option is to use disposable batteries. Such batteries, if analyzed a little, are the least favorable choice. They are favorable because their initial investment cost is low (cheap, easy to get, do not need a charger). But if you use them longer, you will find that this type of battery is the most expensive. Their capacity is low, and they last for a short time.
They are also environmentally unacceptable. Although manufactured in many technologies, they all contain heavy metals and toxic chemicals, so they should be disposed of in separate waste.
So, look at original batteries as a financially, environmentally and technologically poor solution and use them only when necessary.
When it comes to new lithium-ion batteries, it would be ideal if they could be at about 50 percent charge most of the time. When they fall below 50 percent, top-up a little, but try not to fully charge up to 100 percent.
Although absolutely nothing will happen if you do it — even if you do it regularly — for better battery health and longer life it is better not to go all the way.
Also, try not to let the battery drop below 20 percent. The question often arises whether to let the battery drop to zero before being charged — it should not. This was true for nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium batteries, but they are no longer used at all in modern phones (and other devices).
So, for lithium-ion batteries, the opposite should be done: recharge them throughout the day and not let them go to 0 and up to 100 percent.
Many modern phones come with fast charging technology. Although very practical, since it often recharges the battery halfway in just 15 minutes, fast charging is not best for the battery as it can reduce capacity. Fast charging sometimes leads to even more intense heat, and extreme temperatures are not good for battery health (neither high nor low).
You should never hold your phones in direct sunlight.
If you know you will not be using the battery for a long time, charge it to about 40 to 50 percent, do not leave it empty. If you leave it empty and it stays for a very long time, you may no longer be able to hold the voltage.
Keep in mind that lithium-ion batteries lose between 5 and 10 percent a month, so try to recharge them regularly.
The replacement battery is compatible
Depending on the model and manufacturer, replacement batteries may be compatible with multiple models. Typically, batteries from the same manufacturer are compatible with different types of devices.
Batteries must be safe to use
Protective packaging — with double blister packaging to avoid accidental opening (can only be opened with scissors);
Safety Label — a smart safety label on the negative pole of the battery reduces the exposed surface and warns parents to keep the battery buttons out of the reach of children;
- Batteries contain different chemicals, some of which can be aggressive or dangerous to health;
- If the battery leaks, take care not to let the liquid from the battery come into contact with skin or eyes;
- Don’t put them on fire;
- Some combustion batteries can produce toxic gases and fumes;
- Do not charge non-rechargeable batteries;
- Do not open them, some charged batteries (lithium) may be explosive in contact with air.
For safety reasons, it is strictly forbidden to charge batteries by various improvised methods, short-circuit contacts, and combine different types, both old and new, within a battery pack, as there is a possibility of explosion and self-ignition.
Replacement lithium, lithium-ion, and zinc-air batteries need recycling. Look for a recycling stamp found on replacement batteries.
The latest generation of replacement batteries has a higher capacity, longer life, a low self-discharge and memory effect. These are just some reasons why you need replacement batteries.